学術データベース

学術データベース

Lymphocytes and adrenergic sympathetic nerve system: the role of cytokines

著者名 (KANNAN-HAYASHI Yukiko)
共著者名 M. Moriyama, Y. Nakamura.
出版社/掲載誌名 Cytokines and the Brain:NeuroImmune Biology (ELSEVIER SCIENCE (UK))
巻号 Vol.6
pp.307-336
出版日 2008/07
概要 Growing evidence indicates that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is closely linked to the
immune system. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive extensive sympathetic noradrenergic
innervation. Under stimulation, norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic
nerve terminals in these organs, or circulating catecholamines (CAs) such as epinephrine,
affects lymphocyte circulation, proliferation, and cytokine and antibody production through
adrenergic receptors (ARs) expressed on lymphocytes and other immune cells. Although the
mechanisms of adrenergic regulation of immune cells are very complicated, NE and epinephrine
appear to promote humoral immunity rather than cellular immunity by suppressing the helper
T (Th)1 response and upregulating T cell-dependent antibody production, through stimulation of
the b2-AR-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase (PK) A pathway. The SNS also strongly affects
natural killer (NK) cell function, especially during stress. The immune system influences SNS
activity by cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a),
which travel to the brain and stimulate the hypothalamic or other regional neurons regulating
the sympathetic outflow. IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-12, and granulocyte–macrophage colonystimulating
factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate the sympathetic neurite outgrowth, with or without
the mediation of nerve growth factor (NGF) production. Lymphocytes are not only regulated by
NE from the sympathetic nerve terminals, but also synthesize NE and other CAs, and the
lymphocyte-derived CAs may regulate themselves in an auto- and paracrine way.